Epidemiological controversies in autism, (2020), Forbonne, E.
Open access article: (https://sanp.ch/article/doi/sanp.2020.03084 )
Once considered to be rare with a prevalence of 4–5/10,000, autism today has a prevalence in the range of 0.9–1.5%. The increased prevalence reflects mostly a broadening of the diagnosis, and improved awareness and identification among children. The hypothesis that the rise in autism prevalence was due to increased use of childhood vaccines has been refuted in well-controlled and replicated studies. Few environmental causes are well established (advanced paternal age, prenatal exposure to valproate); most other findings require replication.
Citations: Eric Fombonne, (2020). Epidemiological controversies in autism. Swiss Arch Neurol Psychiatr Psychother. 2020;171:w03084